Home Coffee Roasting – How to Roast Your Onw Coffee

crazy by Editorial Staff | Updated on November 12th, 2022

There are a variety of instructions that can effectively teach you how to roast coffee. These instructions are patterned from the equipment used.

More and more people are expressing interest in how to roast coffee. The number of global searches online is enough proof of that. With the benefits associated with coffee roasting, learning the process may prove to be advantageous.

How to Roast Coffee

Roasting coffee beans at home

To enjoy the freshest coffee possible, you should roast your beans home. While it might seem daunting, home roasting is easy and fun. With a little practice, you’ll be able to produce beans that are perfectly roasted to your liking.

There are several home roasting methods, but pan roasting is a good place to start. Heat your pan on medium to high heat and add your beans. Roast the beans for 3-5 minutes or until they produce an audible crack. This crack indicates that your beans are lightly roasted and ideal for brewing.

If you want a darker roast, continue roasting the beans until they reach the desired color. Remember that the longer you roast the beans, the more oil they produce. This oil can give your coffee a bitter taste, so be careful not to overdo it.

Benefits associated with learning to roast your coffee

Is it worth roasting your coffee? Roasting coffee has various benefits, and one of the benefits is monetary. Green coffee beans or unroasted beans are generally priced lower than roasted beans. Also, a certain level of multi-sensory experience associated with coffee roasting makes the process worth learning.

The additional knowledge and skills that can be acquired—such as the art of roasting, types of beans, coffee roasting process, coffee roasting machines, and many more—are simply hard to discount.

Coffee is most delicious when it is freshly roasted, and by roasting your beans, you can ensure that your coffee is always fresh. In addition, roasting your beans allows you to create unique flavor combinations by incorporating different green coffee beans.

The basics of roasting coffee beans

Coffee roasting is applying heat to green coffee beans to create the chemical and physical changes that will produce the desired aromas and flavors. Roasting brings out the locked-in aroma and flavor in green coffee beans.

Beans are typically stored in their green state, but roasting is necessary to produce the rich, full-bodied flavors we associate with coffee. Roasting coffee is not as simple as applying heat until the beans are browned.

There are various stages of roasting, each with its distinct smell. The grassy smell of raw beans gives way to a more roasted smell as the process progresses. In the initial stage of a roast, heat moves from the roasting environment into the green bean. This sets off a reaction between the bean’s natural sugars and proteins.

As the roast continues, these reactions create new compounds that contribute flavor and aroma.

The final stage of roasting is known as the “second crack .” During the second crack, pressure rapidly builds until the shell explodes. After the second crack begins, the green beans will continue to darken and then exceed the roaster’s external temperature, leading to the burning of the beans.

Traditionally, drum roasters rotate the beans around the cylinder drum, creating triboelectricity between the metallurgic materials through contact. The beans then heat up from friction, and the drum helps them to cool by keeping the beans moving.

Coffee roasting process

coffee roasting

Whether using regular kitchen appliances or a specialized machine for coffee roasting, a person can roast coffee beans in many different ways.

Air Roasting

For approximately 10 minutes, coffee beans are evenly cooked or roasted in hot air steam. The evenness of the roast is one of the advantages of air roasting. As for tools or equipment, a re-purposed popcorn popper can be used for this process. Several commercial coffee roasters employ this technology. Some of the common brands are Freshroast, Hearthware, and Nesco.

Drum Roasting

With this process, a large batch can be done without difficulty. Unlike Air Roasting, this process requires attention. Some brands of machines that can be used in this process are Behmor and Gene Café Roaster.

Conduction Roasting

This roasting process usually involves a stove top and requires the most attention and practice to master the technique.

What temperature do you roast coffee at?

Lightly roasted beans generally reach an internal temperature of 356°F to 401°F. At or around 300-350 degrees, You will notice that the beans pop or crack and expand in size.

What are the three basic degrees of coffee roasting?

Roasting has three major stages: drying, browning, production, or roasting.

  1. Drying stage. The coffee bean has 8–12% humidity. We must dry it before roasting starts. The dry stage typically lasts 4–8 minutes with a traditional drum roaster. Typically, the end-of-drying temperature is 320⁰F. Especially with drum roasters, you need to be careful not to burn the beans too much. The drying stage is also critical for collecting bean energy because the last roasting stage is exothermic (heat-producing).
  2. Browning stage. From 320⁰F, the coffee starts to smell like toasted bread and hay. in Maillard’s reaction, removing sugars and amino acids responds, creating hundreds of distinct melanoidin. This is when the roast naturally slows down to ensure flavor development – and some roastmasters also want to slow it down. After the browning stage, the coffee starts popping. This is called the first crack, and the development stage begins.
  3. Development or roasting stage. The reaction is exothermic at the beginning of production, and the coffee splits. The bean accumulated energy through drying and browning periods, causing the coffee to erupt. Production time is when fragrance compounds start forming. When, at the production point, you don’t slow down the roast, you quickly get smoky coffee, and the taste is too strong.

Roast coffee beans using ordinary kitchen tools


Similar to cooking, roasting coffee is both a science and an art. It takes time and ample practice to make the perfect roast. Several tools or machines can be used to manually roast coffee beans. The tools or machines generally employ the use of the conduction method. As a result, the roasting process is slower.

The roasting person controls the coffee beans’ movement, temperature, and time with the manual method. If done right, perfect and full-bodied roasted coffee beans can be expected. Here are some tools or machines that can manually roast beans.

  • Oven
  • Stovetop Popper
  • Skillet or Wok

How do you roast coffee in the oven?

Heat your oven to 500 degrees F, or as high as it goes. Place beans in the steamer or perforated pan and put them on the middle rack of the oven. Open the oven door every minute to agitate the plate, shifting the beans for even roasting.

Bean roasting using coffee roasting machines

Some people prefer the easier way to roast coffee, which is through a coffee roasting machine. Coffee roasting machines come in sizes, shapes, features, and prices. There are various machines to compare and choose from. Refer to this  coffee roaster equipment article.

Tips for roasting coffee beans

Remember a few things when roasting coffee beans to ensure the best flavor and aroma.

First, it is important to start with good ventilation. This is crucial for your roast quality and safety. Use an extractor fan, open your windows, and consider roasting outdoors if possible.

Next, you’ll want to preheat your roaster before adding any beans. Once the popper’s good and hot, add 1/2 cup of beans to the vessel. The whole roast will only take about 5 minutes, but you’ll need to stay close by to monitor the process. Roasting brings out the aroma and flavor locked inside the green coffee beans.

Beans are stored green, a state in which they can be kept without losing flavor for up to a year. The technique itself – turning green coffee beans brown, is fairly simple. However, perfecting the skill requires careful application of heat and time. If you want a medium roast,

How to store roasted coffee beans

The best way to store roasted coffee beans is to keep them in an airtight container in a dark, dry place. This will preserve their flavor and freshness for as long as possible. Exposure to light and moisture can cause the beans to lose their flavor and become stale.

If you buy roasted coffee beans in bulk, it is best to vacuum-seal them in a bag to keep them fresh. Roasters generally know how to package their coffee properly to preserve its flavor. However, if you store your beans in a canister, ensure they are completely airtight to keep the coffee fresh.


Roasting your coffee at home is simple and only takes a few steps to get started. You might need to practice a few times to get the process down, but the main objective is to stop the roasting dead in its tracks as fast as possible.

Dumping the beans into your cooling apparatus of choice and ensuring a constant airflow around them will help to achieve this. Roasting coffee beans develop 800-1000 different aroma compounds, which give coffee its flavor. You can save money and control the roast profile by roasting your beans at home.


How long does it take to roast coffee?

The basic method is simple: using heat to render green unroasted coffee brown roasted coffee. Roasting times vary depending on the method and batch size, but the process may last about 10 minutes for smaller batches and about 16 minutes for larger batches.

Can you dark roast beans in an air fryer?

You will have to experiment a bit, but we have found that dark roasts are best for air fryer beans. Although you can use dark roast beans, it may be hard to do so with an air fryer. This is because air frying removes the bean’s oil, which might make them go bad rapidly. Also, an air fryer used frequently to cook food might change the flavor of the roasted coffee. If you use a medium roast, you will want to reduce the time.

How soon after roasting can I drink my coffee?

Coffee requires a minimum of 12-24 hours of rest after roasting until it is brewed. You can drink it before, but the body and flavor will not be as developed.


Editorial Staff

The editorial staff at Crazy Coffee Crave is a team of coffee enthusiasts & Baristas who enjoy the one thing we all think about as soon as we get up in the morning. Trusted by thousands of readers worldwide.